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Why are women more susceptible to COPD?

Date: 2021-09-08
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  In the past, COPD was generally regarded as a disease that mainly affected elderly men. However, COPD is now common in women, and it increases with the proportion of women who smoke. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common diseases in the respiratory system, which seriously threatens human health. According to the epidemiological survey of COPD in China from 2007 to 2018, the prevalence of COPD in adults over 40 years old rose from 8.2% 1 to 13.7% 2, with a total number of patients approaching 100 million!



  What are the risk factors of COPD?


  1. Smoking.


  Smoking is the most important pathogenic factor of COPD. The abnormal rate of lung function of smokers is higher, the annual decline rate of FEV1 is faster, and the number of smokers who die of COPD is more than that of non-smokers. In addition, passive smoking can also lead to respiratory symptoms and COPD.


  2. Air pollution.


  Air pollution can also lead to COPD. Chemical gases in the air, such as chlorine, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, etc., have irritating and cytotoxic effects on bronchial mucosa.


  When the smoke and dust or sulfur dioxide in the air increase significantly, the acute exacerbation of COPD increases significantly. Other dusts, such as silica, coal dust, cotton dust and sugarcane dust, also stimulate the bronchial mucosa, causing damage to the airway clearance function and creating conditions for bacterial invasion.


  3. Respiratory tract infection


  Epidemiological investigation shows that the incidence of COPD among rural women is related to the use of biofuels. Respiratory tract infection is another important factor for the onset and aggravation of COPD. About 80% of acute exacerbations are caused by respiratory tract infection, and the pathogens causing respiratory tract infection mainly include bacteria and viruses.


  Why does COPD prefer elderly women?


  1. Women's airways are more sensitive to smoke exposure.


  In large population studies, women seem to have more severe COPD early onset disease (60 years old), and are more susceptible to COPD when exposed to low cigarette smoke. The main reason why women are more susceptible to COPD small airways is currently largely unknown. Compared with men with the same lung volume, women's airways are relatively small, so it may be that women have higher cigarette smoke per unit of small airway surface area. Compared with male smokers, female smokers have a 50% increased risk of COPD.


  2. Estrogen regulates the reduction of antioxidants.


  estrogen receptor α (ER α) The effect of tamoxifen, a blocker, is similar to that of oophorectomy, indicating that estrogen is the main reason for the different responses of the sexes to chronic smoke.


  The related mechanism of estrogen receptor and small airway disease was discussed in the same study. The results showed that in female mice, cigarette smoking and growth factors- β (TGF- β) Activation, increased oxidative stress, and decreased expression of antioxidants and transcription factor Nrf2 are related, and these substances regulate a variety of antioxidant genes. These gender differences decreased in ovariectomized animals and after tamoxifen treatment.


  3. Elderly women with COPD have a higher risk of death.


  Women with severe COPD have a higher risk of hospitalization, death from respiratory failure and complications. The histological pattern of female COPD patients is different in that there are relatively less emphysema (smaller pore volume), more small airway diseases (smaller lumen, thicker airway wall), and at least more severe diseases.


  When women are diagnosed with COPD, they are usually postmenopausal, so they are only exposed to low estrogen levels. Estrogen may increase airway fibrosis in the early stage of the disease, and there were no clinical symptoms at that time, so it is not feasible or ideal to use estrogen blocker tamoxifen now.


  Prevention and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


  1. Quitting smoking is the first way to prevent and control diseases.


  2. To reduce pollution, strengthen occupational protection and reduce air pollution, especially to reduce indoor smoke and dust pollution, it is necessary to strengthen the ventilation facilities in the kitchen and reduce or give up the use of biofuels.


  3. Breathing exercises and aerobic exercises.


  4. The use of Sinashu rock salt aerosol therapeutic instrument is worth having.



  Anti inflammation and sterilization, eliminate edema


  The hypertonic effect of salt particles dehydrates the proteins of virus and bacteria cells, and improves the status of respiratory tract microbial community. Supplement ionic components to bronchial mucus, increase osmotic pressure gradient, rapidly diminish inflammation and bacteria, eliminate edema, and breathe more smoothly.


  Helps clean the lungs.


  Smokers are often exposed to air pollution, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. The mucus trapped in the alveoli cannot be discharged, and the dry salt particles released by the salt aerosol enter the respiratory tract to dilute the sputum, change the rheology of bronchial mucus, enhance the swinging vitality of mucociliary, promote sputum discharge, and further clean the lung environment.


  Effective sterilization and improvement of lung microenvironment.


  The mucus trapped in the alveoli can not be discharged, and microorganisms and pathogens can be easily captured. The lungs feel heavy. Salt aerosol can increase the ion concentration of the living environment of bacteria in the respiratory tract, leading to dehydration and death of bacteria, thus playing a role in sterilization and anti-inflammatory, and improving the lung microenvironment.


  Enhance lung vitality and immunity.


  The inhalation of negative ions of dry salt granules can activate the innate immune antiviral signal pathway of alveolar macrophages and increase β 2 Receptor excitability, improve the immune function of the body. Salt aerosol therapy can effectively improve the lung function of patients and reduce the number of attacks.


  Autumn and winter are the high incidence seasons of respiratory diseases. The Sinasol salt sol therapeutic instrument integrated with prevention and treatment provides medical family protection. Breathe freely and live a healthy life.

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